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News about elevators

The interaction of the passenger and the ADF in an emergency in the elevator

Avariyka 1

The interaction of the passenger and the ADF in an emergency in the elevator
An everyday life situation, the elevator car hovered between floors, but there is light and there are no other security threats. The cab's reaction to pressing the movement buttons does not cause. What are your next steps?

Passenger in the elevator car in case of an accident

Without panic, by pressing the dispatcher's call button, report the incident to the duty officer on the ADS console. Clearly describe the problem and indicate the address where the event occurred. Make sure that you are correctly understood and calmly wait for the arrival of specialists.
If the call button does not work, on the information panel next to the control buttons there is always a list of actions and contacts that you must resort to in an emergency. If it is not possible to contact the dispatcher themselves, it is necessary to attract the attention of residents and ask them to report the incident to the dispatch service.

ADF action

Government Decision No. 416 in clause 13 requires the dispatcher to respond to the message within 5 minutes or to contact the source of information within no more than 10 minutes if the call is missed. Dispatch service is obliged to receive messages 24 hours a day daily.
In accordance with this decision, the dispatcher has 5 minutes to analyze the incident and make a decision on connecting various services. If necessary, experts of the Ministry of Emergencies or the Ministry of Internal Affairs can be involved. If there are passengers in the elevator car, the rescue team of trained workers must arrive at the place within a time not exceeding 20 minutes from receiving the signal about the accident.
After arriving at the incident, an experienced and qualified staff determines on the spot how to free people and, observing safety requirements, releases them. Government Decision No. 743 governs the skill level of emergency personnel.

The regulatory framework governing the work of the ADF

The organization of the dispatch service to ensure the safe operation of elevators by the authorities is focused on constant attention.
Organization requirements are set out in a number of documents, among which the main ones:

  • Government Decisions No. 743, No. 416
  • Technical regulations of the TS "Safety of elevators" (ПП №491)
  • Dispatcher's professional standard (Order of the Ministry of Labor of the Russian Federation No. 1120n).

The sum of the required knowledge and skills set forth in these documents implies a high level of training of specialists and organization of all services, which excludes random people from getting not only key positions, but also ordinary employees.

Phones of elevator emergency services of the MiTOL group of companies in Moscow and the Moscow region.

Lifts. User management

lift cabine

The elevator passenger can and must know the rules of management, but does not pass exams and does not receive driving rights. This means that the elevator control system must be intuitive, reliable and safe. There are also, in rare cases, when a special person controls the elevator, but this is more an attribute of pathos than a necessity.

Modern elevator management

The "normal operation" mode is realized when the cab arrives at the site on a call, stops, opens the door, receives users, closes the door and moves on the instructions of passengers. After arriving and emptying the cabin, the elevator closes the door and waits for the next call.

In low-rise buildings and hospitals, the throughput of elevators is low, and the transportation of patients is often more important than the selection of fellow travelers. In such elevators, requests for a passing stop are ignored by the control system until the call is completed until the end and the cab is released.

In high-rise residential buildings, the control scheme with one-way gathering of fellow travelers is most often used. The control circuit gives the command to raise the cab to the very top request, and then going down picks up all while it can take fellow travelers without overload.

In administrative and public buildings, the passenger flow is high and multidirectional, so the control system implements a scheme for the complete selection of users in order to operate elevators efficiently. To do this, the buttons for selecting the direction of the passenger "up" or "down" are installed on each site, if the wishes and movement of the cabin coincide, it stops and picks it up.
In modern high-rise buildings, in order to increase efficiency and economy, various algorithms of the normal control mode for several elevators are implemented, which, in addition to the above conditions, are individual and depend on the particular manufacturer, but there are common features:

  • The busiest site has the highest priority and vacant cabs go there.
  • Picks up a passing call to the nearest underloaded cab.
  • It is unacceptable to send several cabs to one call.

High-rise buildings are most often business centers or other administrative buildings, therefore, they have "evening" and "morning" modes. In the morning, it is necessary to quickly separate the employees from the first floor, all free cabins are sent to it. In the evening, on the contrary, free cabs rise to the floor with the highest challenge and, going down to the first, they select everyone.

Additional control from the elevator car

On freight and passenger lifts there is a loading mode, when the doors do not close automatically, before it ends and the loaded cabin moves, ignoring the associated calls, only by orders from its remote control.

Often, in the event of a fire hazard, a modern cabin can be forced to go to the first floor and open the doors automatically (when trying to smoke). The regime for transporting rescuers with a special key also gives them the right to priority control of the cabin.
Management of the elevator outside the cab and call buttons on the floor for auditing, repair, and elimination of an accident is not available to the user and this is the right safety measure.

Installation of elevators. User safety is most important

input lift

A citizen living in a small town or metropolis, busy with his vanity, every day using the elevator several times, must follow the safety rules in it. However, the design decisions and organizational measures that make elevators a safe vehicle are the concern of the manufacturer of this equipment and the service organization.

Elevator car like safety capsule

Moving on floors in a usual hurry, performing the usual actions with the elevator control, you do not feel the danger. As soon as the cabin stood between the floors, there is a slight panic at first, and then fear appears.

The elevator car, even the most comfortable, enclosed space, limited on all sides, from where it is difficult to escape, and the first thing that should be undertaken by designers is to prevent fire. In this situation, designer fantasies will not help. Materials in the manufacture of the cabin and its decorations should be non-combustible, and the doors fireproof. In the event of a power outage, the mechanism should automatically lead to the floor and open the doors.

In residential apartment buildings, such a mechanism is not everywhere, so emergency crews carry out the extraction of tenants from the elevator. In addition, in the elevator cabins of such houses, manufacturers need to think about anti-vandal designs of remotes, lamps and other room accessories.

Technical solutions that make the lifting process safe

Proven design solutions that prevent injuries in the event of a lift breakdown are as follows:

  1. The elevator car is usually suspended on at least four cables and a break in one is not a disaster.
  2. When all cables are broken, the cabin of a modern elevator is kept from falling by wedge-shaped locks (catchers).
  3. Overloading the elevator automatically blocks the movement and closing of the door.
  4. Sensors do not allow injuring users when closing elevator doors.
  5. Special shock absorbers will cushion the fall of the cab if no insurance and blocking has worked.

Organizational measures leading to the trouble-free operation of the elevator

Technical developments on the safety of elevators, accumulated after the invention of this convenient means of transportation, function normally in systems where the schedule of PPR is thought out and strictly observed.

The weakening of state control over the work of elevator companies leads to the following:

  • decrease in the professional training of technical personnel;
  • an increase in the service area by a small number of professionals only in accidents dramatically reduces equipment life;
  • Inadmissible acceptance of affiliated persons inspection and maintenance.

Companies with a long market history are more reliable in this sense. Their workforce is more professional, training and monitoring of knowledge of regulations and their ability to perform is carried out regularly. Maintenance plans in reputable firms are more developed and are strictly enforced.

It is no coincidence that people in this area understand that human safety in an elevator is more important than other values.

Modern solutions to the problems of high-rise elevators

moscow citi

In the race for time, the modern horizontal resident of the metropolis has long joined the vertical elevator race. Citizens, living or working high, do not want to wait a long time for the elevator.

Speed ​​issues

The speed of elevators in modern high-rises, with a height above 30 floors, approached 80 km / h, which is higher than that allowed for cars in the city. Climbing up at this speed created two problems for elevator builders.
How exactly do not build the elevator shaft, at such speeds appears horizontal swinging of the cab (vibration). This is physically difficult for passengers, and always being stressed adds fear. In this case, the fight against discomfort is due to the active suspension of the cabin horizontally using the technologies used in modern cars to dampen vibration.

The second most important problem is ear plugging with a rapid change in pressure and noise, like in the subway. To combat noise, similar methods of sealing and soundproofing are used, as well as teardrop-shaped cabs, as in modern trains. To reduce the effect of the pressure drop down the elevator is slower and technical solutions are used to compensate for this phenomenon.

Increased passenger flow due to cab design

Moving a large flow of citizens in administrative skyscrapers during rush hour creates similar problems for elevators, as in the subway. In residential buildings, this problem is less, but it also exists.

Solving such troubles due to the increase in the number of elevators is not very interesting for investors, as it reduces the costly floor space. There are currently design methods to combat this scourge:

  • an increase in the area of ​​cabins to almost 10 m2 and lifting capacity of elevators up to 6 tons;
  • two-story cabins (two cabins are mounted on one frame for servicing neighboring floors, double deckers);
  • Two independent cabins in the same shaft, each with its own counterweight and control, equipped with locks from approaching each other (twins).

These measures significantly increase the useful work of elevators without increasing the number of shafts.

Organizational and technical solutions

After the appearance of skyscrapers above 30 floors, the most common scheme appeared, which became a classic. Usually on the ground floor there are several lifts landing that serve different groups of floors, those floors that they do not serve, they slip through without stopping. For a passenger, the main thing is to get into the right elevator, and he will quickly lift you to the desired place. However, with an increase in the number of storeys above 50, the number of elevators grows and becomes economically unacceptable.

To solve this problem, they simply pointed the previous scheme at each other several times vertically. The ground floor analogs (interchange nodes) were called the "sky lobby" and launched independent non-stop elevators (shuttles) between them. The number of mines has grown slightly, but the problem has yet to be resolved.
The growth of cities up is a continuous process and problems with elevators will appear yet.

Briefly about the replacement of elevators in apartment buildings

Moscow style

When you move up the stairs to the 10th floor during the next breakdown of the elevator, you begin to feel the vital importance of this element of comfort in urban life. And the higher you go, the clearer you understand that it is time to change the elevator.

Decision-making

The decision to replace or repair the elevator may be initiated by a group of dissatisfied homeowners or an accredited equipment service company. After an examination of the condition of the elevator, the volumes are determined, and future work is calculated. Then the general meeting with two-thirds of the votes of the owners decides on the necessary work. The result of the meeting, drawn up by the protocol, is transferred to the Criminal Code and local government for further actions to find financing.

Upgrade or replacement

If the elevator has been used for 25 years or more, according to the technical regulations it must be replaced. Partial equipment upgrades do not resolve the issue of elevator replacement, but, as a less costly temporary measure, can be done.

montazh liftov1a

In a letter dated January 29, 2018 No. 2695-NS / 06 of the Ministry of Construction of the Russian Federation, it was said that if at least one old element remained in the elevator equipment, it was modernized, not replaced, of the elevator. Playing with terms in the reports can lead to the fact that for another 25 years the equipment will not be replaced, and the allocated budget financing will go to other needs.
If the lifespan of the elevator is less than 25 years, both the elevator can be upgraded and replaced. The decision-making procedure is the same.

Sources of financing

Having agreed to repair or replace the elevator, the meeting of owners plans to finance this work. The elevator economy belongs to the common house property and is maintained at the expense of homeowners, including residents of the first floor. However, estimates for equipment and work to replace the elevator are rarely less than a million rubles, therefore, in addition to the owners' funds, there is the possibility of co-financing with the federal capital repair program or the regional program for the accelerated replacement of elevator equipment.

The opportunity to transfer most of the costs to these programs exists, but it is decided by the commission of municipal authorities after an examination of the condition of the house, the lifespan of the elevator and the financial capabilities of the homeowners.

Technical performance

Replacement or modernization of the elevator consists of the following:

  • examination of all equipment and the condition of the mine;
  • preparation of design estimates;
  • dismantling of equipment for replacement;
  • construction works;
  • installation of new equipment, cables and automation elements;
  • commissioning works;
  • Conducting approvals and putting the elevator into operation.

Management organizations are responsible for the safe operation of elevators and may be criminalized for negligence resulting in accidents.

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