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News about elevators

Lifts. User management

lift cabine

The elevator passenger can and must know the rules of management, but does not pass exams and does not receive driving rights. This means that the elevator control system must be intuitive, reliable and safe. There are also, in rare cases, when a special person controls the elevator, but this is more an attribute of pathos than a necessity.

Modern elevator management

The "normal operation" mode is realized when the cab arrives at the site on a call, stops, opens the door, receives users, closes the door and moves on the instructions of passengers. After arriving and emptying the cabin, the elevator closes the door and waits for the next call.

In low-rise buildings and hospitals, the throughput of elevators is low, and the transportation of patients is often more important than the selection of fellow travelers. In such elevators, requests for a passing stop are ignored by the control system until the call is completed until the end and the cab is released.

In high-rise residential buildings, the control scheme with one-way gathering of fellow travelers is most often used. The control circuit gives the command to raise the cab to the very top request, and then going down picks up all while it can take fellow travelers without overload.

In administrative and public buildings, the passenger flow is high and multidirectional, so the control system implements a scheme for the complete selection of users in order to operate elevators efficiently. To do this, the buttons for selecting the direction of the passenger "up" or "down" are installed on each site, if the wishes and movement of the cabin coincide, it stops and picks it up.
In modern high-rise buildings, in order to increase efficiency and economy, various algorithms of the normal control mode for several elevators are implemented, which, in addition to the above conditions, are individual and depend on the particular manufacturer, but there are common features:

  • The busiest site has the highest priority and vacant cabs go there.
  • Picks up a passing call to the nearest underloaded cab.
  • It is unacceptable to send several cabs to one call.

High-rise buildings are most often business centers or other administrative buildings, therefore, they have "evening" and "morning" modes. In the morning, it is necessary to quickly separate the employees from the first floor, all free cabins are sent to it. In the evening, on the contrary, free cabs rise to the floor with the highest challenge and, going down to the first, they select everyone.

Additional control from the elevator car

On freight and passenger lifts there is a loading mode, when the doors do not close automatically, before it ends and the loaded cabin moves, ignoring the associated calls, only by orders from its remote control.

Often, in the event of a fire hazard, a modern cabin can be forced to go to the first floor and open the doors automatically (when trying to smoke). The regime for transporting rescuers with a special key also gives them the right to priority control of the cabin.
Management of the elevator outside the cab and call buttons on the floor for auditing, repair, and elimination of an accident is not available to the user and this is the right safety measure.

Installation of elevators. User safety is most important

input lift

A citizen living in a small town or metropolis, busy with his vanity, every day using the elevator several times, must follow the safety rules in it. However, the design decisions and organizational measures that make elevators a safe vehicle are the concern of the manufacturer of this equipment and the service organization.

Elevator car like safety capsule

Moving on floors in a usual hurry, performing the usual actions with the elevator control, you do not feel the danger. As soon as the cabin stood between the floors, there is a slight panic at first, and then fear appears.

The elevator car, even the most comfortable, enclosed space, limited on all sides, from where it is difficult to escape, and the first thing that should be undertaken by designers is to prevent fire. In this situation, designer fantasies will not help. Materials in the manufacture of the cabin and its decorations should be non-combustible, and the doors fireproof. In the event of a power outage, the mechanism should automatically lead to the floor and open the doors.

In residential apartment buildings, such a mechanism is not everywhere, so emergency crews carry out the extraction of tenants from the elevator. In addition, in the elevator cabins of such houses, manufacturers need to think about anti-vandal designs of remotes, lamps and other room accessories.

Technical solutions that make the lifting process safe

Proven design solutions that prevent injuries in the event of a lift breakdown are as follows:

  1. The elevator car is usually suspended on at least four cables and a break in one is not a disaster.
  2. When all cables are broken, the cabin of a modern elevator is kept from falling by wedge-shaped locks (catchers).
  3. Overloading the elevator automatically blocks the movement and closing of the door.
  4. Sensors do not allow injuring users when closing elevator doors.
  5. Special shock absorbers will cushion the fall of the cab if no insurance and blocking has worked.

Organizational measures leading to the trouble-free operation of the elevator

Technical developments on the safety of elevators, accumulated after the invention of this convenient means of transportation, function normally in systems where the schedule of PPR is thought out and strictly observed.

The weakening of state control over the work of elevator companies leads to the following:

  • decrease in the professional training of technical personnel;
  • an increase in the service area by a small number of professionals only in accidents dramatically reduces equipment life;
  • Inadmissible acceptance of affiliated persons inspection and maintenance.

Companies with a long market history are more reliable in this sense. Their workforce is more professional, training and monitoring of knowledge of regulations and their ability to perform is carried out regularly. Maintenance plans in reputable firms are more developed and are strictly enforced.

It is no coincidence that people in this area understand that human safety in an elevator is more important than other values.

Modern solutions to the problems of high-rise elevators

moscow citi

In the race for time, the modern horizontal resident of the metropolis has long joined the vertical elevator race. Citizens, living or working high, do not want to wait a long time for the elevator.

Speed ​​issues

The speed of elevators in modern high-rises, with a height above 30 floors, approached 80 km / h, which is higher than that allowed for cars in the city. Climbing up at this speed created two problems for elevator builders.
How exactly do not build the elevator shaft, at such speeds appears horizontal swinging of the cab (vibration). This is physically difficult for passengers, and always being stressed adds fear. In this case, the fight against discomfort is due to the active suspension of the cabin horizontally using the technologies used in modern cars to dampen vibration.

The second most important problem is ear plugging with a rapid change in pressure and noise, like in the subway. To combat noise, similar methods of sealing and soundproofing are used, as well as teardrop-shaped cabs, as in modern trains. To reduce the effect of the pressure drop down the elevator is slower and technical solutions are used to compensate for this phenomenon.

Increased passenger flow due to cab design

Moving a large flow of citizens in administrative skyscrapers during rush hour creates similar problems for elevators, as in the subway. In residential buildings, this problem is less, but it also exists.

Solving such troubles due to the increase in the number of elevators is not very interesting for investors, as it reduces the costly floor space. There are currently design methods to combat this scourge:

  • an increase in the area of ​​cabins to almost 10 m2 and lifting capacity of elevators up to 6 tons;
  • two-story cabins (two cabins are mounted on one frame for servicing neighboring floors, double deckers);
  • Two independent cabins in the same shaft, each with its own counterweight and control, equipped with locks from approaching each other (twins).

These measures significantly increase the useful work of elevators without increasing the number of shafts.

Organizational and technical solutions

After the appearance of skyscrapers above 30 floors, the most common scheme appeared, which became a classic. Usually on the ground floor there are several lifts landing that serve different groups of floors, those floors that they do not serve, they slip through without stopping. For a passenger, the main thing is to get into the right elevator, and he will quickly lift you to the desired place. However, with an increase in the number of storeys above 50, the number of elevators grows and becomes economically unacceptable.

To solve this problem, they simply pointed the previous scheme at each other several times vertically. The ground floor analogs (interchange nodes) were called the "sky lobby" and launched independent non-stop elevators (shuttles) between them. The number of mines has grown slightly, but the problem has yet to be resolved.
The growth of cities up is a continuous process and problems with elevators will appear yet.

Briefly about the replacement of elevators in apartment buildings

Moscow style

When you move up the stairs to the 10th floor during the next breakdown of the elevator, you begin to feel the vital importance of this element of comfort in urban life. And the higher you go, the clearer you understand that it is time to change the elevator.

Decision-making

The decision to replace or repair the elevator may be initiated by a group of dissatisfied homeowners or an accredited equipment service company. After an examination of the condition of the elevator, the volumes are determined, and future work is calculated. Then the general meeting with two-thirds of the votes of the owners decides on the necessary work. The result of the meeting, drawn up by the protocol, is transferred to the Criminal Code and local government for further actions to find financing.

Upgrade or replacement

If the elevator has been used for 25 years or more, according to the technical regulations it must be replaced. Partial equipment upgrades do not resolve the issue of elevator replacement, but, as a less costly temporary measure, can be done.

montazh liftov1a

In a letter dated January 29, 2018 No. 2695-NS / 06 of the Ministry of Construction of the Russian Federation, it was said that if at least one old element remained in the elevator equipment, it was modernized, not replaced, of the elevator. Playing with terms in the reports can lead to the fact that for another 25 years the equipment will not be replaced, and the allocated budget financing will go to other needs.
If the lifespan of the elevator is less than 25 years, both the elevator can be upgraded and replaced. The decision-making procedure is the same.

Sources of financing

Having agreed to repair or replace the elevator, the meeting of owners plans to finance this work. The elevator economy belongs to the common house property and is maintained at the expense of homeowners, including residents of the first floor. However, estimates for equipment and work to replace the elevator are rarely less than a million rubles, therefore, in addition to the owners' funds, there is the possibility of co-financing with the federal capital repair program or the regional program for the accelerated replacement of elevator equipment.

The opportunity to transfer most of the costs to these programs exists, but it is decided by the commission of municipal authorities after an examination of the condition of the house, the lifespan of the elevator and the financial capabilities of the homeowners.

Technical performance

Replacement or modernization of the elevator consists of the following:

  • examination of all equipment and the condition of the mine;
  • preparation of design estimates;
  • dismantling of equipment for replacement;
  • construction works;
  • installation of new equipment, cables and automation elements;
  • commissioning works;
  • Conducting approvals and putting the elevator into operation.

Management organizations are responsible for the safe operation of elevators and may be criminalized for negligence resulting in accidents.

Capital Gate - contrary to gravity

Capital Gate1

The gates of the capital is the name of the Capital Gate tower, as it is the first to be seen from afar from the Persian Gulf to the city of Abu Dhabi.

To build a building in Abu Dhab, you need to make a unique project for an architectural company so that this building is unique not due to its height, but due to its design and world innovations in its architectural concept. The architectural bureau RMJM London decided to make a unique building in tune with nature, rising from the sand to 160 meters like a deserted whirlwind, all twisted and with a large slope.

For the foundations to withstand the frame of the building, it was necessary to make a core, on which the volumetric structure of the building was subsequently hung. It was decided to drive 490 piles so that the building could withstand the load. Since the tower frame went almost 33 meters beyond the foundation line so that it did not turn over, on the opposite side of the building's inclination, the piles were hammered to the depth of the rock ground to failure.

The first 12 floors of the building were located on a monolithic slab, and the subsequent floors were, as it were, extended with an increase in the height of the building. The central core of the building was made of reinforced concrete. The core structure consists of a reinforcing cage and metal structures, which are fenced with formwork to shape the core. The mobile formwork was poured by 4 m and, after solidification of the concrete, moved upwards with the help of powerful jacks. The central core was designed so that its tilt was performed in the direction of the tilt of the building. And during the load, the building with metal structures that give a visual slope to the building, the central core came into a strictly vertical position. And reinforced concrete, which would be stretched by the weight of the protruding part of the building, will now be strengthened by compression.

Capital Gate2

To give the core more strength, special wells were left during the pouring with concrete mixture, which pass through five floors and overlap each other. 146 reinforcing elements are laid in these wells, which, after installation, with the help of a tensioning mechanism (pneumatic jacks) pull them with an force equal to approximately the weight of five family cars. After tensioning all the elements, the wells are poured with concrete mixture. This technology allows the core to withstand the load due to the large overhang of the tower.

Now the tower core needs to be loaded using a diagonal grid. This is a gigantic system of steel beams that forms a grid of 720 cruciform sections. Assembling sections requires incredible accuracy so that the loads are evenly distributed. After assembling the diagonal grating, it is necessary to glaze it with triangular glass blocks. In total there are 12.5 thousand of them on the facade of the building.

Capital Gate6

After mounting the metal structures of the building and glazing the facade, the central core of the tower comes, according to the design, into a strictly vertical position. Now you can carry out the installation of elevators, since the elevator shafts are located in the central core of the skyscraper. In the title of the article we wrote "Installation of elevators in spite of gravity", but this is not so. Installation of elevators in Capital Gate usually occurs, as in all skyscrapers, and there are no special features when servicing elevators.

The construction of Capital Gate began in 2007 and was commissioned at the end of 2011.
On the lower floors of the 35-storey building are office premises. The 5-star hotel with 189 luxurious rooms overlooking the Persian Gulf occupies floors 19 to 33. The five-star hotel offers not only classy rooms with excellent interiors and excellent service, but also conference rooms, fitness centers, a panoramic restaurant and an outdoor pool at a height of 100 meters. A special attraction of Capital Gate can be considered a unique conical atrium, which is the natural interior lighting of the building. And a huge helipad completes the skyscraper.

Capital Gate7

Capital Gate in June 2010 was in the Guinness Book of Records, as the building with the largest angle of inclination - 18 degrees.

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