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Installation of lifts. How it all began.

Installation of lifts.The history of the elevator!

Much can speculate about the appearance on Earth of the first elevator and who really is the inventor of the first elevator. But here we find the truth.
Stop! And why not? Yes it is very easy, because the first lifting gear appeared, as they say, our historians, back in 236 BC.
First, the mention of the elevator describes in his treatise "Ten Books on Architecture" Roman architect Vitruvius, which says that the design of the lift developed by his order Archimedes. We all know the Law of Archimedes. His "Eureka!" Became famous as soon as he jumped naked out of the bathroom. But not everyone remembers the "Archimedes" and "Archimedes screw", and yet it is the latter, probably, and made the sign for the invention of the elevator.
But it's all for a long time past. Previously, hoists have been used to lift the cooked meals in the dining room from the kitchen (79 BC at the foot of Mount Vesuvius). The engines did not exist and was used muscle power.
installation of lifts. MitolIn the palace of the Roman emperor Nero lift shuffled not only goods, but also people. All theatrical performances are not only used the elevator to deliver on stage theatrical scenery and actors, but also during the performance. Everything moved manually by a group of slaves.
And remember the gladiatorial fights in the Roman Coliseum. Scientists have just discovered that the Coliseum has 12 elevators for lifting the arena of gladiators and animals. The audience, of course, were delighted when suddenly appeared on the scene, none of which, the lion and all it was just a shock. Beasts just catapulted, with lifts from the basement. Several slaves through the blocks set in motion, these lifting devices at the amphitheater.
In Louis XV had already been "crafty" passenger elevator in the Palace of Versailles with which he visited his mistress apartment, located on the top floor. Well, we're all about foreigners. What about Russia?
Russian Empire is also not lagged behind Europe and in 1795 in the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg, appeared "jack-up chair", with which Alexander Bezborodko taking off from the ground floor to the royal apartments of Catherine II. This was the first elevator in Russia, created by Ivan Kulibin. With the help of two people, a platform with a cabin for two vertically mounted screws moved up. At the time, it was a favorite pastime of the approximate Empress, senior officials and servants of the palace.
But before long, muscular power of humans and animals has been replaced by a steam engine. In 1800, in the coal mines of America lifts moved not only people, but also coal. The use of steam engines increased productivity and efficiency.
Since 1835 the enterprise of England became commercially use steam freight elevators everywhere. But this was hoisting one big flaw, the steam engine had to work all the time. This is not a problem for Shaft elevators installed in the coal mines, because there is a continuous process, but where the elevator was needed occasionally, was a very small efficiency and high cost. Therefore, steam elevators could not be used in residential buildings. But the problem was solved in 10 years, as an American, William Thomson invented the hydraulic drive for elevators. Although also used the steam engine, but it is already installed remotely from the elevator shaft itself and did not cause noise while driving. With the help of high-pressure pipes liquid fed into the cylinder, which moved the elevator.
William Armstrong perfected the hydraulic actuator for the elevator and began to use a hydraulic accumulator, to create a constant pressure. The first elevator with a hydraulic cylinder plunger type of direct action was set in England in the hotel «Osmaston Manor» in 1849.
the history of elevators. Otis ElevatorIn 1852, Elisha Graves Otis, an American engineer who made a vertical lift the safest mode of transportation. The principle of operation catcher cabin was simple. The platform lift was moving on two guide rails and a gear has been fixed rope through the spring. To demonstrate his invention, Otis 1854godu built in one of the exhibition halls of New York's 12-meter vertical structure with a playground. Loaded it with barrels and crates and put himself on a platform in a frock coat and top hat. The site, with the help of the steam engine has risen to the top. A crowd of onlookers gathered to see the show. Assistant pererubaet rope sword and playground quickly falls down. People calms down, but after a meter under the lift stops and the crowd cheers Otis takes off his hat and bowed to the audience.
What is the essence of the "focus"? Yes, everything is very simple. The site was in fact fixed to the rope, through a plate-springs and when the rope was cut, spring arched and ends stuck in the teeth of the rails. Therefore the area and stopped.
And what now stop elevator with a broken rope? The principle is the same, but more refined. Now the cable is connected not only with the unit, but also with liftoulovitelem. If the cable is broken, the catcher has not kept them and disclosed as "daisy". So we never fall down along with the cockpit and will not break down. I hope the reader now everything is clear about the principle of liftoulovitelya.
Elisha Graves Otis, three years after the show sets the store on Broadway its first elevator that carries 5 people in the cab and moves at a speed of 0.2 m / s. This is the first child of his famous «Otis Elevator». In 1859 the firm of Otis at the "Fifth Avenue" establishes the first screw lift. Its operating principle was simple. The basement was set screw that held up to the attic and through the pulley was driven by a steam engine, and the cabin was "nuts." By rotating the screw clockwise - cab was moving down, counterclockwise - up. But the elevator was moving very slowly, was inconvenient to use and is very expensive.
In America, the construction of skyscrapers and elevators need for greatly increased. In the first high-rise buildings have been applied hydraulic lifts without a cable. Stand piston installed in the basement of the building and the cabin was pushed up under the pressure of water. The velocity of the lift has increased, but in buildings over 20 floors, this method was very expensive and inefficient. After all, it was necessary to dig a huge pit to accommodate the hydraulic cylinder. Yield found quickly and put cylinder horizontally and the elevator drives the rope through the pulley system. That is, once again returned to a system of Otis. Unfortunately, in 1861, Elisha Graves Otis died and he could not have taken part in the design of elevators for skyscrapers, but his firm «Otis Elevator» since 1874 has set its hydraulic passenger and freight elevators.
In 1886, the competition for the World Exhibition in Paris by Gustave Eiffel was a draft 300 meter high tower, which is designed to lift his classmate Leon Edu. They are hydraulic, piston type and the cabin was secured to the piston rod. But about the Eiffel Tower elevators we describe in detail in the next article.
Elevator Siemens. Installation of lifts/ MiTOLIn 1880 he was installed the first electric elevator. Company engineer Werner von Siemens to install an elevator in the German city of Mannheim, which was raised for 1 sec to 22 meters.
In 1887, an American engineer A. Miles patented another innovation for the electric lift. Now, in the absence of the elevator on the floor doors are automatically locked elevator shaft that we are all, of course, familiar.
In 1889, the installation of elevators at the New York skyscraper is firm «Otis Elevator» and they are all electric.
For maintenance of elevators required specialized personnel: maintenance engineer steam engine or electric motors, hydraulic cylinders, elevator operator in the cab to control the movement of the cab; duty on the floor for the opening and closing of doors. All of us have seen in historical films lifters dressed in uniforms in all the hotels of the world, which solemnly moved visitors from floor to floor.
However, the company «Otis Elevator» in 1924 patented the elevator call button, and Houghton engineer invented the automatic doors in 1926, a much simplified and automated maintenance of elevators. Then came the elevator control services, emergency elevator service.
Elevator has long been a part of our lives and we do not even notice how much progress in society have made him inventors.
Order the installation of elevators worldwide known company OTIS you may have, call 8 (495) 523-63-49
P.S. At some top class hotels around the world specially used lifters dressed in uniforms and dverevyh, to give the hotel a special glamor and importance.

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