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Installation of elevators. The history of the appearance of the first skyscrapers

Montazh liftov Chikago

The first high-rise buildings began to erect as early as the beginning of the 19th century. Before that there was an opinion that the construction of high-rise buildings is unprofitable from the economic point of view. It is for this reason that at that time the height of the tallest buildings was not more than six floors, besides, the water pumps of the day were not of a special power, except that they were able to lift water only at a 15-meter height.

Over time, as elevators with powerful pumps were invented, it became possible to build taller buildings. The architects together with the builders came to the conclusion that it would be more acceptable to build high-rise buildings, in particular for densely populated megacities, where the saving of the building site is extremely important.
It is considered that the skyscraper, which was built in Chicago in 1885, was the first skyscraper in the whole world at that time. This building stood only 46 years, due to the fact that in 1931. it destroyed. Its height was only 55 meters, which is very insignificant in comparison with the current skyscrapers, but its design was quite interesting. All because at its construction for the first time used technology with a bearing steel frame. This principle is used to build high-rise buildings in our time. it is extremely interesting that this technology does not erect bearing walls, they are simply replaced by the previously mentioned steel frame, to which other elements of the high-rise building are attached, including walls.

In the 20th century, the construction of high-rise buildings in the largest cities was progressing very fast.
Despite the fact that in our time there are many opponents of building high-rise buildings, the future still after them. In addition, from the point of view of the economy, this is the most optimal option, also, if we pay attention to the fact that the problem of the lack of territory is very acute.

The materials used for the erection of such buildings are constantly being improved. Already in our day, more and more often you can meet the facing with solar panels, which will easily solve the problem of energy saving. In cities such as Dubai, London, Moscow and Paris, there are rotating skyscrapers (designed by David Fisher), their floors can rotate around their vertical axis located by means of special mechanisms. Also, between their floors are hidden wind turbines, which are designed to generate energy for rotation, as well as electricity throughout the entire building. The same rotation provides a vertical axis, directly on which elevators and communications are located. Therefore, the installation of elevators in skyscrapers is a very important moment in the construction of skyscrapers.

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When creating projects of high-rise buildings, natural factors are always taken into consideration, because such a building can easily withstand possible hurricanes, strong and gusty winds, seismic activity and a number of other natural phenomena. One of the most urgent issues to date is the use of materials resistant to extreme temperatures, which make skyscrapers resilient to explosions. In connection with this, the Americans developed a unique material - reinforced concrete, reinforced with a special fiber. But then why in the development of new projects of skyscrapers preference is given to concrete? And this is due to the very high resistance to fire, in comparison with steel or glass, which is also often used in the construction of skyscrapers. In addition, now there is a great variety of different types of reinforced concrete, which can perfectly suit the construction of skyscrapers.

Speaking about the skyscrapers of the near future, I would also like to note that the main argument against high-rise construction is the statement that, allegedly, the skyscrapers spoil the architecture of the city. But it's not difficult to notice that the projects that are created by modern architects completely refute this view.

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